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Native Americans of South Carolina

By Stephen Pony Hill

The origin of the "Goins/Goings" line is firmly placed in the same area as the origin of the predominat number of the other mixed-blood lines...the Chesepeake Bay shores of Virginia. They started out as servants (but at that early time it was more like indentureship or sharecropping) on plantations in either Northampton or at the other end of the ferry in York, Surry or Prince George. Several researchers have pinpointed that these people were described as "Portuguese Angolans" who had been captured from a Portuguese boat by a Danish vessel then brought to Virginia and sold during the early 1640's. The Portguguese Angolan colony people at that time were predominantly already tri-racial mixed (Portuguese-subSaharran African-Tupaya native from Brazil) and these "mulattoe slaves" who appear in early Virginia records are undoubtably of that stock. These men maintained homes on the Gingaskin reservation land and married women from that tribe. All of the original males had been freed from servitude by 1660.

Towards the end of the 1600's these complexly mixed individuals began to migrate out and intermarry with other Indian groups (Pamunkey, Catawba, Saponi, etc.). Lawson mentioned in early 1700 that he encountered a "Portuguese" living at the Saponi village when he visited there.

By 1740 these core families appear to have migrated to three areas...mid-northern NC (Orange, Halifax)...on or around the Tuscarora reservation in Bertie County NC and the mid-northern section of SC. The Goins/Goings family was represented in all three areas recorded as "Other free persons", "Free people of Color" or "Mulattoe"...by now all the families were 1/2 Indian or more, but of course because of their known African roots (by 1740 most were probably 1/16th or less African) they were still within the legal limit to be classified, taxed, and regulated as "Free Negroes."

Just after the American Revolution whole families migrated to two more areas; northern Georgia and eastern Tennessee. The northern Georgia group were all migrants from NC, whereas the Tennessee group were comprised of migrants from Orange County NC and northern SC. The Orange County families held out in Tennessee and were eventually derisevly labeled "Melungeons" by neighboring whites, but the SC families continued on south to Miss. and LA where they were called by the same label they hade been called in SC, "Red Bones."

The "Red Bones" of LA, "Melungeons" of Tenn, "Brass Ankles" of SC, "Croatans" and "Cubans" of NC, and the "Guineas" and "Portuguese" of VA all have the same origins, and are all related. They all descend from those "Portuguese" captives who they and their descendants intermarried with whites and Indians from various tribes (Gingaskin, Pamunkey, Nottaway, Chowan-Nansemond, and various tribes that were residing on the Tuscarora reservation)....all current DNA evidence that I have seen appears to agree with the documentation evidence above.


Copyright ©2006, Stephen Pony Hill, all rights reserved.

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Copyright ©2006, Stephen Pony Hill, all rights reserved. this document is copyrighted and may not be sold, nor given to anyone who may attempt to derive profit from same, without written permission of the author.