I was forwarded a very useful document...it is a report by Melinda Maynor on a community of Lumbees who settled in southeast Georgia (Bulloch County) to work in the timber industry (Maynor, Melinda M. People and Place: Croatan Indians in Jim Crow Georgia 1890-1920 Thesis, UofF @ Chapel Hill, 2002 43 pgs.)..she details the types of work, the economic impact, etc. she also mentions the time period that the industry moved from Georgia to Florida...the most exciting detail is when she notes the Lumbees living here she mentions Beasley Bullard, a Lumbee born in Robeson who subsequently lived at Scott Church in 1920 (where he is censused as "Mulatto")..he married Loula Scott then moved back to Robeson by 1930 (where he is censused as "Indian") apparently Bealsey was living in the Lumbee community in Bulloch Co. Ga. in 1910, but had followed the timber industry down to Scott Church and Scott's Ferry by 1920
Arrived in late 1828...Joe Scott appears on 1840 census of Calhoun County as free colored persons (5 males 12 females) in "Iola" (present day Scott's Ferry area) living next to John Chason and Indian trader Henry D. Stone....a few households over were Jackson J. Wood and Moses Manning (who appeared on Richards' Co. of Friendly Indians--most likely had Cheraw wives)
1850 Census of Calhoun County...on Ancestry.com enter the name John Williams (this should be household #52) (note: John Williams was born 1790 in Mecklenburg NC where he appears in 1820 and 1830 then moved to Robeson Co. where he appears in 1840, then on to Florida by 1850) it begins a three page section which was the core of the Cheraw Indian community living on the plantation of Capt. Stephen Richards (these include Ishmael Ayers, Jacob Scott (his wife Appa "Polly" Harmon), Isham Scott, Olive Jones, Absalom Scott, Alexander Stephens, Elizabeth Perkins Hill, and Sarah Brown Castleberry...(also James Butts who was brought up to court in Jackson County for "Adultery & fornication with free Mulattoe" in 1857 but case was dropped by the state after hearing testimony from John Chason)....in this county also see household #50 John Williamsthe last household of interest is #88 headed by Abigail Brickhouse..her daughter Elizabeth Brickhouse married Ellis F. Davis (of Scott Church)..also in this household is Sarah "Sabrey" J. Register who married John M. Scott...just across the river in Liberty County observe household #618 William Stafford, #619 Henry Maner (sic Mainer ..note that his son was born 1847 in Texas) #620 Thomas Scott (and wife Sarah Larkins) #621 Frances Larkins and #622 William Scott.
(note: the names of Jacob Scott, Joseph Scott, and William Scott all appear on 1825 petition of Catawba Indians regarding leases of Catawba Resrevation land in my possession)
1850 Census of Jackson County...observe household #522 Samuel H. Ireland (married Elizabeth Perkins -i believe first cousin of Betty Perkins - in Gates Co. NC) next is #523 Betsy Hills (this is a repeat of Calhoun household #68) and #524 Polly Bedie
In 1860 Calhoun County...please observe special census page beginning with household #165 Joe Scott (his wife Sarah Beasley-a descendant of the Chowan Beasley family from Gates County NC) this was the begining of the Scott's Ferry settlement including Jacob Scott, Frank Hill (his wife Elizabeth Perkins), William Stafford, Jack Howard (his wife Lofty Bunch), Pachal Loftis (his wife Olive Jones - living with them was Olive's grandaughter, Jane Scott, who married Rueben Blanchard) Isham Scott (his wife Jane Emanuel) and Edmund Manuel (note: Edmund Emanuel was from Sampson Co. NC and had enlisted there in wAR OF1812)
In 1860 Jackson County....please observe two pages begining with household #106 Ellis Davis (his wife Elizabeth Brickhouse) #107 Absalom Scott #108 John Williams #109 Daniel Bunch #139 Emiline Davis #140 Joseph Davis (his wife Susan Emanuel) #141 Joseph D. Smith #142 Samuel Ireland (his wife Elila Perkins) #143 Alexander Stephens (his wife Mary Matilda Scott...Alexander died of disease during the Civil War and Mary Matilda remarried to James William Perkins the son of Elizabeth Perkins Attaway) ...this was the beginning of the Scott CHurch settlement.
(note: in 1851 there was a large migration of the Red Bones out of the Rapides Parish area of LA following the "Raw Hyde and Bloody Fight" that took place at Walnut Hill, LA...many went to east Texas, but I believe the Larimore and Davis families came down into Florida at that time)
In 1870 Calhoun County...please observe a closely grouped settlement beginning with household #256 Ruben Blanchard (his wife Jane Scott Stone the granddaughter of Olive Jones) and ending 8 households later with #265 Jane Williams....this was the core of the Scott's Ferry settlement.
In 1870 Franklin County...please observe household #21 John Bunch (John Bunch was taxed as a "free person of color" in Calhoun Co. in 1852) and #22 John Scott (this is John M. Scott who married Sabra J. Register...they continued to live in Frankiln County after she was charged with "Attempting to Marry a Mulattoe" in Calhoun Co...most likely due to John's service for the Union in the War...investigation was held and charges dropped, but they did not live in Calhoun after that)
In 1870 Jackson County...please observe a closely grouped settlement beginning with household #37 William Perkins (James William Perkins...living with Mary Matilda Scott widow of Alexander Stephens...William was charged with "Lewd & Lascivious Cohabitation" in Jackson Court in 1872 and thereafter moved down to Scott's Ferry) #40 Samuel Scott ( Samuel was charged with "Adultery" in Jackson Co. Court in 1868 and his 1st wife, Susan Ireland, filed for divorce that same year...he remarried to Jane Ayers) #Louis Scott (Lewis Scott and wife Isabella Davis) #42 Henry Scott (his wife Sarah Ayers) #43 Absalom Scott (his second wife Julia A. Bell) #45 Mary L. Chason (daughter of John Chason who had been killed in the War) #46 Abraham Colwell (taxed as a "free person of color" in Jackson Co. in 1845, 1846, and again as a "free person of color" in Calhoun Co. in 1852.) #47 Wright Colwell (son of Abraham...Wright's wife Margaret Miller) #48 Pollie Whitehead #49 Laboring Goodson (his wife Nancy Calwell, daughter of Abraham) Rebecca Duffin (this is Rebecca Goins, she had two daughters by a white man named 'Duffin') #51 Nancy A. Maddox #52 Mary Scott (this is Mary Attaway..she had married John T. Scott, son of Absalom, but he had died in the War...she had two daughters by him, William Anne & Bell, then she had an illegitimate son, Mathias, by Jacob Porter...also living with her here is her mother Elizabeth "Betsy" Perkins) this was the core of the Scott Church settlement.
Ash, Smallwood and Barnwell families
For years now I have been trying to dig up info on the Ash and Barnwell familes...in between 1910 and 1920 some Ash boys came down from SC with a man named Colonel Barnwell (Colonel was his first name, not a military title)..in about 1880 the Matrilinial family leader Elizabeth "Betty" Perkins was living with the son of Toy Smallwood..... these families intermarried with some of our Indians here, and attended our seperate Indian school....until yesterday I had been unable to find records of the ancestry of these families.
- Master Indian trader Matthew SMALLWOOD was listed as having an Indian slave known as Jack Smallwood in South Carolina (South Carolina's Indian Traders 1670-1755, Barker, Eirlys Mair, 1993)
- In Bertie County NC (home of the Tuscarora Reservation) in 1785, Nancy ASH petitions for the release of herself and her children from slavery from John Gardner on the grounds that she was a free-born Indian woman. John Gardner counterclaims that "Jenny ASH is not an Indian nor is she free born but that she is a mustee, and a slave." Inference: among 1780's north carolinians, if you are not a full-blood, you are not an Indian.
- ROSA BARNWELL born in South Carolina and endured slavery for twenty years, states that her mother was of Indian descent and a free woman, but that she, Rosa, was kidnapped by a man named Lee Edwards and doomed to a life of servitude. Rosa was one of 12 Indian children taken prisoners in the time of the last war (Tuscarora) and sold into slavery...her desire to purchase the freedom of the other Indians was too costly. (A Most Secret Identity: Native American Assimilation and Resistance in African America, Wellburn, Ron 2002) note here: In the Tuscarora War of 1712, James Moore Jr. and COLONEL John BARNWELL carried off a thousand Tuscaroras into slavery.
VERY IMPORTANT FIND: 1719 South Carolina Assembly in determining who should be "indian" for tax purposes (Indian slaves were adjudged at a lower tax rate than negro slaves..so the idea is to get as much tax as possible...remember, censuses were also intended to assess the taxable citizens in any given area, so race was determined by what the census enumerator felt that the person should be taxed as.) The Act passed that year stated "And for preventing all doubts and scruples that may arise what ought to be rated on mustees, mulattoes, etc. all such slaves not entirely Indian should be accounted as negro." Inference: persons of Indian blood less than full-blood would be legally documented as "negro".
Copyright ©2005, Steven Pony Hill, all rights reserved.
Anyone with information on Native Americans in this area please contact me.
Copyright ©2005, Steven Pony Hill, all rights reserved. this document is copyrighted and may not be sold, nor given to anyone who may attempt to derive profit from same, without written permission of the author.