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The "Turks" of Sumter County, South Carolina

I recently was contacted by my first cousin Pat Hill, and Pat informed me that our grandfather, Isaac Burton Hill was an Indian. He certainly was different looking and had dark skin and jet black curly hair. His father, Charles Jesse Hill, from whom he was estranged, was a Mormon and had about three wives, one of which was a Lumbee named Mary Frances Oxendine. These Oxendines were from Tennessee and Missouri and are descendents of Archibald Oxendine and Patsy Quackenbusn from Pee Dee SC. I am interested in finding out more of these people.

There is a book about my ancestors called "The Genealogy of Thomas Hill and Rebecca Miles" by Sister Louise Donnelley, a Nun, written in 1971 (a Jarboe Reference Book). Some of Archibald's offspring started spelling the surname Exendine, either from illiteracy, or a desire to distance themselves from the Indian heritage. Of all the tribes, the Lumbees were looked down upon for being tri-racial. And due to that fact the tribe is still fighting the Government for recognition.

Burton Hill  29 March 2005


My husband's great grandfather was William Jasper Exendine...his grandfather was Joseph Exendine ...his mother Anita Exendine Smith all (including my husband and children) are registered Delaware Indians.  John the oldest son of Archibald lived his life as an OXENDINE and was buried an EXENDINE? His daughter married her 1st cousin (2nd marriage for her) and she can be found both as an Exendine and an Oxendine. The Exendine line are all on the Dawes list ... since they were made to live with the Cherokee you can find some of them on several list, Delaware, Cherokee, etc.

On the census you were either white, black or mulatto ... so you can find Jasper as black , white and mulatto but never Native American or Indian.

Have volumes of info on the family ... for example Jack's great grandmother was Mary Snake Hill, a full blooded Delaware ... Jasper was married 3 times and all three wives were full blooded Delaware. He and his first wife Emiline are buried in the Delaware Cemetery in Dewey, Oklahoma...the Dewey cemetery is on line and you can check it out.

I would like information on Archibald and Patsy ... we really think that her maiden name was Shoemake or Shoemaker. Can you help?

Peggy Smith, 1/23/2006


Responds Pony Hill of Blountstown, Florida, 1/24/2006

The Oxendine (sometimes spelled Exendine) are a large and prominant family among the Lumbee Indians of Robeson County NC. These people descend from the Cheraw tribe and other various smaller eastern siouan tribes who lived in eastern NC and northern SC. The surname Oxendine appears among the Indian descendants who originated in Robeson County and the name cannot be found anywhere else in North America.

Many of the Lowry, Oxendine, Goings, etc. mixed-blood Indian families traveled to Ohio, Delaware, Arkansas, Mississippi, etc. prior to the Indian removals in the 1830's. Many of these surnames appear in Oklahoma due to having intermarried with Indian tribes which were relocate dto Indian Territory.

I lived in Tahlequah Oklahoma for 2 years and worked for the Cherokee Nation. I loved everyday that I spent there among my fellow Indian people.


I have joined the genealogical society here in Sumter, SC,c and have spent a lot of time researching the census. Also I wanted to let you know I found my great great grandfather on an 1850 Census from Robeson NC he was 10 years old and classified mulatto. He lived in a household starting with

Lewis Oxendine age 68, Amy Oxendine age 67, Catherine Oxendine age 13, Mary A. Oxendine age 12, Charles Oxendine age 10, and Betsy Hunt age 80. This has put a stop to my search for now. To become a member of the Lumbee tribe you must prove a relative living in Robeson or one of the surrouding

counties between 1900-1910. My great grandfather Charles died when he was 41, so I have no idea where his sister went. The only thing that gets me is the fact that the household he lived in with Lewis and Amy. They were 67 and 68 years old. This was not common back then to have children in your 50's. I'm thinking these were his grandchildren living with him and that Amy Hunt was Amy's mother. Another shocking thing Is I found this on my grandmothers side of the family. She was Nellie Benenhaley, Her mother was Camilla Oxendine and father was Warren Benenhaley. Camilla's father was Charles Oxendine. I really don't know where to go from here. Mandy Oxendine Chapman.  June 2006.

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Copyright ©2006, Burton Hill, Peggy Smith, and Steven Pony Hill, and Mandy Oxendine Chapman, all rights reserved. this document is copyrighted and may not be sold, nor given to anyone who may attempt to derive profit from same without written permission of the author.